Chi-square screening were used that have categorical parameters; ANOVAs were used having proceeded variables

To research demographic, health status, and you will comorbidity differences between schizophrenia caregivers, and non-caregiver regulation, and you will anywhere between schizophrenia caregivers, or other caregivers, bivariate analyses was in fact performed.

Covariates listed a lot more than (demographics and you can health functions) were joined towards the an individual logistic regression model in order to assume delivering worry to help you a grown-up diligent with schizophrenia versus. maybe not getting worry. Other separate logistic regression model try go to assume getting care so you’re able to an adult diligent that have schizophrenia vs. men and women providing manage grownups which have a disorder besides schizophrenia. Schizophrenia caregivers was in fact matched in order to low-caregiver or other caregiver participants to the inclination rating by using the “greedy” coordinating formula . A-1:dos complimentary proportion is observed, per schizophrenia caregiver try coordinated to a couple low-caregiver handle participants and separately so you’re able to several caregivers out of almost every other conditions. Post-fits, differences when considering these communities was basically re also-tested to ensure sufficient complimentary. Together with, the fresh new matching is limited in order that all of the suits was indeed inside per 5EU nation.

Differences on HRQoL, and self-reported comorbidities were examined post-matching to quantify the burden of schizophrenia caregiving as a function of humanistic outcomes. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to test for statistical differences across i) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those not providing care for an adult relative and ii) those providing care for Divorced dating only reviews an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those providing care for an adult relative with a condition other than schizophrenia. Statistical significance was set at 2-tailed p <0.05.

Overall performance

A total of 398 schizophrenia caregivers, 158,989 non-caregivers regulation and 14,341 caregivers of other standards was identified through 5EU NHWS all over 2010, 2011 and you may 2013. Within full test away from 173,728 adults over the 5EU, twenty-five.4 % have been within the France, 25.step three % during the Germany, 25.six % in the uk, 14.0 % within the Italy, and you will nine.6 % inside the The country of spain.

Schizophrenia caregivers versus. non-caregivers

The average age of schizophrenia caregivers was 45.3 years (SD = 15.8 years), 59.6 % were female, 52.5 % were currently employed, and 14.8 % reported an income of ? ˆ50,000/??40,000. Before matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with non-caregivers, were more likely to be female (59.6 % vs. 51.4 %), less likely to be married/living with partner (57.4 % vs. 62.8 %), reported lower annual household income, were less likely to be employed (52.5 % vs. 57.7 %), more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 26.1 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden via the CCI, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on age, education level, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 1).

After propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers were more likely to report experiencing sleep difficulties (42.7 % vs. 28.5 %), insomnia (32.4 % vs. 18.5 %), pain (39.7 % vs. 30.4 %), headaches (48.0 % vs. 42.0 %), heartburn (31.7 % vs. 22.9 %), anxiety (37.9 % vs. 23.6 %), and depression (29.4 % vs. 19.4 %) in the past 12 months than non-caregivers, all p <0.05. Based on the PHQ-9, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater severity of depressive symptoms than non-caregivers (p <0.001). Schizophrenia caregivers were also more likely to currently be using a prescription medication to treat depression (17.6 % vs. 8.2 %, p <0.001) than non-caregiver controls. Schizophrenia caregivers reported significantly lower MCS (40.3 vs. 45.9), PCS (46.8 vs. 49.0), and health utility (0.64 vs. 0.71), compared with non-caregivers (all p <0.001) (see Table 2).

Schizophrenia compared to. other caregivers

Before propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with caregivers of other conditions, were younger (45.3 vs. 49.1 years), less likely to be married/living with a partner (57.4 % vs. 68.1 %), had lower annual household income, were more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 29.2 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on gender, education level, employment status, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 3).